Running may seem like a simple thing to do, but in reality it is a complex movement that puts stress on the ligaments, bones, and joints of the body. Because of this, selecting the correct running shoe is important for increasing performance and avoiding risk of injury. Running shoes should be selected based on your foot type. Considerations such as trail versus road shoes are important, but your foot type dictates the degree of cushioning, stability and motion control you require. The most accurate way to learn your foot type is to visit a local shop that specializes in running shoes. Professionals there can measure your arch type, stride and gait and let you know your shoe needs for future reference.
The design of running shoes is created around the idea of pronation. Pronation is the rolling of your ankle from outside to inside when your foot strikes the ground, which is natural. If you run properly you strike the ground on the outside of your heel and roll in the direction of your big toe before pushing off once more. Pronation is beneficial because it assists the lower half of your body in absorbing shock and storing energy. Those considered neutral runners pronate correctly and do not need running shoes that help correct their form. Neutral runners can choose from a wide variety of shoes, including barefoot or minimal types. However, those who have arch problems or who adopt an incorrect form while running may experience too much or too little pronation and require running shoes that offer additional support.
Those who overpronate experience an over-abundance of ankle rolling. Even while standing, those who severely overpronate display ankles that are angled inward. It is not uncommon for them to have flat feet or bowed legs as well. The tendency to overpronate may cause many injuries. Areas that tend to become injured are the knees, ankles, and Achilles tendon. If you find that you have a tendency to overpronate, you should look at shoes that provide extra stability and motion-control. Motion-control shoes are straight and firm; shoes of this type do not curve at the tip. The restricted flexibility along the middle of the shoe prohibits the foot from rolling too far inward as your foot strikes.
A less common problem is underpronation. Underpronation, also called supination, is when the feet are unable to roll inward during landing. Those who underpronate have feet that lack flexibility and high arches. This prevents any kind of shock absorption, even though it does place less rotational stress on ankles and knees. This added force can cause fractures, ligament tears, and muscle strains because the legs are trying to compensate for the impact. Those who underpronate need shoes with more cushioning and flexibility. If you have a tendency to underpronate, selecting stability or motion-control shoes may cause you more problems by continuing to prevent pronation.